Numarul 1 / Anul 2022

  Complete Edition


  Sexuality in teaching – good, bad or ugly? Lessons from a collaborative ethnographic study
Barnabás Sárospataki, György Mészáros

Sexuality in education is often considered taboo, following a social attitude that perceives sexuality as dirty and ugly in the teacher-student relationship, not only if it implicates sexual relationships but erotic feelings or subtle sexual connotations, too. Studies tend to judge the issue more reflexively along with moral and pedagogical categories of right and wrong, good and bad. However, in our collaborative (auto)ethnographic research, we found that sexuality, in a broad sense, as an anthropological dimension, is inescapably present in pedagogical relations and teaching. Going beyond a moralising approach, we aim to analyse sexuality in teaching along the lines of critical (feminist) pedagogy and the ethics of care. In line with these perspectives, we also aim to provide practical implications for teachers on the subject. Our theoretical approach follows these two frameworks but still takes a focused and limited approach to sexuality by concentrating on its universal and performative aspects. Our analysis seeks to answer how sexuality in teaching can be judged as "good" or "bad". Our study"s novelty consists of exploring the topic in a broad sense and a complex approach combining pedagogical and ethical aspects. Methodologically, our reflection is based on two related auto/ethnographic projects running over several years. A key element of the inquiry was a continuous collaborative reflection in our dialogical field notes complemented by interviews and focus groups. In presenting our findings, we use vignettes to illustrate the complex dimensions of sexuality in teaching. We conclude that the "good" and "bad" factors of the presence of sexuality cannot be separated entirely. Teachers should move beyond a moralising and dismissive attitude to reflect (or even consciously integrate) the dimension of sexuality in their teaching. Still, they should constantly reflect on the power relations and oppressive factors inherent in sexuality.

Keywords: sexuality, critical pedagogy, feminist pedagogy, collaborative ethnography

  Measuring sustainable communication in education
Dr. Mirona Stănescu, Dr. Daniel Andronache, Prof. Dr. Anselm Böhmer

Although aspects of sustainability in communication such as nonviolence are discussed from time to time, hardly any theoretical basement with an empirical validation can be found. In the broadest sense, sustainability refers to the ability to maintain or support a process continuously over time. This paper asks for the theoretical approach that helps to understand the challenges of teaching in schools of diverse societies (2) and explains some core aspects of the ongoing research on sustainability and communication (3). After that, this paper presents the research question this project tried to answer (4) and explains the used instruments, the data, and some of the most relevant outcomes of this study (5). Finally, some conclusions describe the opportunities and threats of sustainable communication for teacher education. The outcome of this paper is that a specific theory of sustainable communication is missing. Furthermore, the results of the empirical investigation show that intercultural communication, non-violent communication, cooperation, problem solving and, reflection are statistically related as constructs and predictors of sustainable communication. Also, the teaching experience of the participants in the sample is a significant predictor of the sustainable communication.

Keywords: sustainability; communication; nonviolence; collaboration; problem solving

  Hybrid teaching approach at Romanian Language and Literature in PISA 2018, Romania
Octavia Borș

In recent years, teaching became an important subject of public debate, as a critical area of educational reform in Romania. There is little consensus about what is expected of Romanian teachers, some standpoints inclining towards taking a more constructivist approach in teaching. However, there is little scientific evidence about the teaching practices of Romanian teachers, for public debate to rely on. PISA 2018 (Romania) gives access to data about the frequency of 5 teaching practices, as perceived by students at Romanian Language and Literature lessons. The analysis of these practices suggests that, in their students` perception, Romanian teachers have a hybrid approach of teaching, with a predominance of directed instruction. Also, according to the students, other frequent practices in Romanian language and literature class are teacher support and teachers` stimulation of reading engagement. For the future, more accurate evidence is necessary, in addition to investigating the students` perceptions, we should do observational studies of the teaching practices themselves.

Keywords: teaching practices, directed instruction, constructivist teaching, PISA, Romanian Language and Literature

  Fostering womens to choose stem career by using emotional intelligence as key element
Cristina Tripon

Emotional intelligence has become more and more important in our society, being part of the competencies of the 21st century, regardless of the field in which the professional career exists. Especially in the STEM field, which is deeply marked by the small number of women represented, this could be the key to motivating girls to increase their motivation to choose the STEM field. This article presents the gender gap in terms of emotional intelligence and its expressiveness in order to create the premises to encourage girls to become leaders in the field, based on their ability to empathize (better than boys). STEM girls have an emotional intelligence superior to boys and there is a difference between girls and boys in terms of perceiving and expressing emotions. Thus, girls studied in STEM domain tend to be affirmative expressing their feelings directly, naturally, they are sociable, socially balanced, sometimes they can have exaggerated emotional reactions to a situation. Despite this, test results have shown that boys, unlike girls, have the ability to perceive and use emotions within the relationships they establish, much higher. STEM girls have an empathic ability superior to boys. This indicates that girls, unlike boys, are able to listen to others look from the perspective of others, to put their feelings in tune with others, they have altruistic behaviors that give them a dose of generosity that is sometimes lacking in boys.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, female STEM career, self-regulation

  The Romanian Higher Educational System – before and after the Bologna moment. Case study of a Romanian university
Ramona Puiu, Theofild Lazăr

The article represents part of a wider research initiative that aims to follow the main structural changes that happened within the Romanian universities determined by the implementation of the Bologna Process. The literature review consists in the description of the main turning points of the Romanian Higher Education System in the post-communist period, with two distinct subchapters: one that refers to the pre-Bologna period and one on the post-Bologna period until present day. We follow the main legislative changes and their effects on the Romanian Higher Education System, structural modifications, external influences, even on student number evolution. The second part of the paper is a quantitative analysis of the evolution of four selected bachelor programs from a Romanian University, starting ten years before the Bologna Process implementation until present day. Using document analysis, we follow two main parameters: the number of teaching hours for each program and the number of disciplines for each program. The aim of the research is to identify the changes that occurred within the selected programs in the investigated period, with emphasis on the Bologna Process implementation moment (2005). The data show that each of the programs selected had particularities on the evolutions of their curriculums, some differences can be noticed between pre and post Bologna periods. Due to the fact that all the bachelor programs were restructured after the Bologna moment into 6 semesters from 8 in all of the analyzed programs, we had expected to find clear decrease in the number of teaching hours per program and the number of disciplines per program, but, surprisingly, this was not a general tendency.

Keywords: Bologna Process, higher education system, curriculum

  Adapting to a new education era: overcoming challenges in preschool education during pandemic times
Elena Marin

The art of teaching consists in adapting the structures, contents, teaching strategies, classroom management issues, as well as managing the conditions imposed by the contemporary contexts of society, the constant adaptation of the strategies, used by the teacher, to the needs of the children, while trying to find a balance between the traditional training method and the use of technology. The challenges brought by the context of the last years, in terms of the protection and safety of our health due to the COVID 19 pandemic, have put the education system to the test from all points of view: from a technological point of view, the lack or poor training of teachers in terms of digital competences, the poor functionality of certain school platforms used, etc. However, teachers have implemented ideas that give value to the teaching act, by reinventing themselves, striving to find innovative solutions so that the teaching activities can continue to take place. The aim of this paper is to identify the biggest challenges faced by Romanian teachers in preschool education in the pandemic context, understanding how they managed to adapt and what solutions they found and applied for carrying out the teaching activity. In this respect a questionnaire was developed and distributed among pre-school teachers during November 2021 – January 2022. The results of the research identified a series of difficulties faced by the participants, generated by a multitude of elements such as: lack of technological equipment, low digital skills, difficulties in organizing and supporting the learning activity. An essential aspect regarding the online teaching activity with kindergarten children was the reluctance and non-involvement of parents, many parents not agreeing with the use of the computer and the internet for a long time.

Keywords: education, emergency remote education, teachers` skills.

  From teaching economics as a subject to entrepreneurial competencies in the Post-Soviet countries
Aigerim Kozhabergenova, Csilla Pesti, Erika Kopp

Transition from the Soviet type of economy to a new market system showed the necessity in reforms at the secondary school level. Based on a literature review, this paper aims to reveal how the thinking about teaching economics has changed over the past three decades (1991-2021), and how this has affected teaching economics as a school subject in the Post-Soviet countries. The article illustrates these with the cases of Russia and Kazakhstan. For this paper, a narrative literature review methodology was adopted and scanned studies included only those published in English and Russian.

Keywords: teaching economics, entrepreneurial competencies, Post-Soviet countries

  Some aspects of the children-friendly school with holistic approach
Judit Torgyik

This paper reviews the characteristics of a good school, emphasising the role of human relationships in the learning process and how relationships can be developed. It highlights the importance of taking human needs into account at school and the importance of the teacher’s personality in creating a quality classroom atmosphere and education. It concludes with the idea that a good school takes a holistic view of the child’s personality and needs, and that teachers can provide for this.

Keywords: the importance of social relationships, human needs at school, supportive school climate, the teacher’s role, humanistic, positive pedagogy

  Teachers’ and students’ perceptions towards the utilization of formative assessment rubric for supporting students’ learning of organic chemistry
Ezechiel Nsabayezu, Aloys Iyamuremye, Janvier Mukiza, Jean Claude Habimana, Agnes Mbonyiryivuze, Emmanuel Gakub, Theophile Nsengimana, Francois Niyongabo Niyonzima

This study aimed to investigate the use of formative assessment rubrics for supporting the learning of organic chemistry in secondary schools in Rwanda. A mixed research approach was used to collect and analyze data. The target population was 210 senior five chemistry students and 15 chemistry teachers. However, 140 senior five chemistry students and 10 senior five chemistry teachers were purposively selected to participate in the study. The qualitative data were obtained from the interview while quantitative data were obtained from the survey questionnaire. The qualitative data were analyzed by discourse and interpretive approaches while quantitative data were checked by descriptive statistics. The results of this study showed that from rubric formative assessment, students understood instructors’ expectations and encouraged individual learning. The students’ knowledge retention was also increased. The instructors mentioned that they were able to grade the students’ tasks fast with the help of an analytic rubric and good formative feedback was availed to students on time. The students were satisfied with the use of the formative assessment rubric and they affirmed that they were motivated and engaged in learning organic chemistry. It was recommended that chemistry teachers should use rubrics during formative assessment in organic chemistry.

Keywords: Formative assessment rubrics, students’ learning, organic chemistry, motivation, performance.