Numarul 2 / Anul 2022

  Complete Edition


  Teachers’ beliefs about teaching and encouraging reflexivity in teaching practices
Aleksandra K. Anđelković, Jovana J. Milutinović, Biljana S. Lungulov

The paper is based on the hypothesis and the assumption that teachers’ beliefs and perspectives on teaching have a significant impact on their behaviour in the classroom, as well as that they guide and direct reflexivity in teaching practice. In that manner, the teachers’ beliefs and their reflective practice have become the necessary and integral part for the improvement of the teaching quality. The aim of this paper is to explore the connection between the beliefs and behaviour of teachers in the classroom through the analysis of the literature, as well as to consider the possibilities and effects of reflexivity in teaching practices. The results of this research indicate that, despite the different points of view among scholars and numerous studies, there is an agreement on the importance and role of teachers’ beliefs and their impact on teaching practice. Furthermore, it was concluded that teachers’ reflective practice is a significant step towards improving the quality of teaching and development of teacher competencies.

Keywords: teachers’ beliefs, reflexivity, teaching practices, teaching perspectives.

  The role of practicum in teacher education policy documents in Ethiopia, Myanmar, Kazakhstan, and Iran
Ei Phyu Chaw, Aigerim Kozhabergenova, Mestawot Tafese Beyene, Amin Saed, Erika Kopp, Nora Rapos

This study aims to compare the role of practicum in teacher education policy documents in Ethiopia, Myanmar, Kazakhstan, and Iran to propose a better way to improve the practicum system The term practicum in pre-service teacher education allows student teachers to integrate their knowledge from the university courses and experiences from the practicing school (Kopp & Kálmán, 2015). The increasing importance of practice in teacher education is a global educational policy trend, but the national context necessarily influences implementation. However, few studies researched comparing teacher education in developing countries, although the national context is essential to understand the organization and operation of teacher education systems (Tatto, 2021) where the main obstacle is the linguistic diversity of different countries. This study referred to Weidman et al. (2014) conceptual framework for comparative and international teacher education. The qualitative document analysis method with MAXQDA software is used to analyze teacher education policy documents, mainly focusing on the aim, structure, and student activities. Researchers developed a common codebook, imported it into the software, and analyzed 39 documents. The results revealed that the aim and definition of the practicum are similar, but the learning outcomes of student teachers" practice related to practicum are a little different between the four countries. Student teachers are required to complete the practicum as part of their pre-service teacher education program in four countries. Teacher education policy documents in four countries have addressed all the elements and requirements related to teacher education contexts, however, the implementation level of the practicum in each country may differ significantly. Nevertheless, this study compares the practicum in teacher education document, highlights similarities and differences, and shares the best practices from four countries.

Keywords: practicum; teacher education; policy document; document analysis

  Principles of economic theory: an anachronistic school textbook in Greek educational system?
Ioannis Sitzimis

In the Greek educational system, students of the third grade of general and vocational high schools, who wish to enter higher education institutions with an economic orientation, must choose the scientific field "economics and computer sciences". In this field, one of the most important subjects examined is "Principles of Economic Theory". It was introduced in the panhellenic examinations in 2000 and is still in existence today. The textbook of the course has not undergone any changes and according to many economists it contains anachronistic information and knowledge. In this context, the Greek Ministry of Education decided to introduce a new course entitled "Principles of Economic Science" from the school year 2025-2026 and consequently to write an updated textbook. In this paper we evaluate the adequacy of the old textbook to determine, on the one hand, whether the change in the curriculum was necessary and, on the other hand, whether its replacement in secondary education was correct. Through descriptive statistics and inferential testing and using the prefecture of Rethymno, Crete, as a case study, we cross-check the attitudes of students and economics teachers towards the textbook, to draw our conclusions.

Keywords: panhellenic examinations, school textbook "principles of economic theory", evaluation method

  Online teaching and students’ perceived level of math anxiety during covid-19 pandemic
Alina-Elena Grecu

This study explores how teachers’ perceptions of students’ math anxiety changed during online learning imposed by the Covid-19 pandemic. Using the focus group method of qualitative research for a group of selected math teachers, we have looked into the following questions: How was the students’ perceived level of math anxiety in online classes? What differences and what similarities have the teachers noticed in comparison with the face-to-face learning? The results of the study show that the phenomenon of math anxiety is decreasing and is becoming less significant than in face-to-face education. Moreover, our research showed that the frame description of how teachers perceived the students’ math anxiety implies two different different processes: the students’ engagement in online learning (SEO) and the students’ digital competences (DC). It seems that students’ digital competences has a positive effect on learning mathematics, a fact that leads to students’experiencing less anxiety. Also, the phenomenon of math anxiety may be caused by the lack of students’ engagement in online learning. Students who don’t have digital skills, tend to avoid participating in online mathematics classes.

Keywords: emergency remote teaching and learning; perceived level of math anxiety; digital competences; comparison; student engagement

  Clinical supervision of experienced school counsellors in Israel
Irit Ran, Alexandru Neagoe

The purpose of the study was to examine the prevalence, type and frequency of supervision provided to school counsellors, as well as to map experienced counsellors’ expectations of the supervisor The research question guiding this study was: What is the platform, type and frequency of supervision provided to school counsellors, and what are experienced counsellors’ expectations of the supervisor? An online survey was employed to collect data for the present study from the respondents (N=78). The survey was distributed to Israeli counsellors via an announcement posted on a dedicated WhatsApp group. The survey results indicated that 71% of the counsellors receive supervision, where 44% receive individual supervision and 78% group supervision. Sixty-seven percent of the supervision sessions are provided at the school and the rest at the district and in workshops. Regarding experienced counsellors’ expectations of the supervisor, a higher proportion than novice counsellors noted the following topics: additional points of view, space for deliberation, new intervention tools, good understanding of their feelings, emotional ventilation, new knowledge in counselling, as well as the wish to receive emotional support and clear guidance. This data suggests that experienced counsellors need regular supervision to enhance their awareness and professionalism and that their needs change throughout their years of work. At the same time, some counsellors still need the dominant and directing presence of a supervisor even after many years of work, a fact that indicates personal aspects that affect the role of the counsellor. This paper contributes additional knowledge concerning experienced school counsellors and suggests expanding the range of possibilities according to counsellors’ needs.

Keywords: Lifelong supervision, Experienced school counsellors, Clinical supervision

  Video modeling and daily living skills training in students with ASD
Claudia – Vasilica Borca, Gabriela Petrescu

This article includes multiple case studies that aim to explore the effectiveness of using video modeling on the development of daily living skills in middle and high school students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this study we used video modeling to train five daily life skills in students with ASD. The students watched the videos according to a specific procedure. The participants in the study were four students with ASD enrolled in special education, two boys from the 8th grade, and two students (a boy and a girl) from the 9th grade. Data were collected by applying the Waisman Scale for Daily Living Skills (W-ADL) at the beginning and end of the intervention and the Observation Grid that was completed for each individual student, during each session/session, throughout the duration of the intervention. The results showed that video modeling is an effective technique for teaching a wide range of daily living skills to students with autism spectrum disorders that they were able to master, achieving 100% of them on their own, some in a shorter time frame, others in a larger number of sessions. The findings and recommendations of the study suggest that video modeling is not only an evidence-based practice to train daily living skills in students with ASD, but also that the use of video modeling is beneficial because of the reusable and portable technology. Future research should further explore the effectiveness of video modeling on the training of both daily living skills and other activities (eg: assembling a toy, playing games with peers, evacuating in case of fire, but also activities of teaching) to pre-schoolers and young school children.

Keywords: video modeling, daily living skills, autism spectrum disorders

  The implications of self-esteem development in primary school students
Andra-Maria Jurca, Claudia Borca, Maria Vaetisi

Studies that have been conducted on the topic of self-esteem have shown that it contributes considerably to various important areas of life. However, research has proven that there is ontogenetic variation in self-esteem, and the factors that contribute to its development are not yet very clearly defined (Robins 2002, Orth & Robins, 2022). Furthermore, researchers suggest that greater consideration should be given to the development of self-esteem in the context of close relationships (Erol & Orth, 2014), in addition to the implementation of engagements aimed at improving self-esteem. These engagements are intended to bring considerable benefits, both to the individuals and to society (Orth & Robins, 2022). In this context, the present research study aims to examine the impact of personal development activities on the level of self-esteem development in primary school students. For the purpose of this goal, we base our arguments on the hypothesis that personal development activities do determine the improvement of the level of self-esteem in primary school students. The design of the study entails quantitative, quasi-experimental, pre-posttest research. The trial was carried out on 40 subjects distributed in two groups, experimental and control. As a methodological tool, we used the LAWSEQ questionnaire (Lawrence, 1981), which measures the general level of self-esteem. After analyzing the data, it was observed that the average level of self-esteem felt by the students in the experimental group was higher than that of the students in the control group, nevertheless, differences were not significant from a statistical point of view. In conclusion, the research hypothesis, according to which: Personal development activities determine the improvement of the level of self-esteem in primary school students, was not confirmed. Thus, it is necessary to reconfigure some of the personal development activities that were proposed, and the topic requires additional research.

Keywords: self-esteem; personal development activities; primary school students